The load transducer shown in Figure 1 utilises four strain gauges attached to the cylinder. In selecting a gage for a given application, gage length is one of the most important considerations. 3 Note 1-3: For practical strain gage applications, the pairs R 1, R 2 and R 3, R 4 or all four resistors R 1 to R 4 should have the same nominal value to ensure that the relative changes of the individual bridge arms are proportional to the relative variation of the output voltage. Range: It represents the maximum strain which can be recorded without resetting or replacing the strain gage. Detail of strain gauge installation, shown larger than actual size. This alloy has, for example, an adequately high strain sensitivity, 4 bridge strain gauge out to instrumentation. See Figures C through F. For example, if a positive (tensile) strain is applied to gauges 1 and 3, and a negative (compressive) strain to gauges 2 and 4, the total strain would be 4 times the strain on one gauge. Turnbuckle with SGD-10/120-LY13, strain gauge, £50 per pack of 10, shown smaller than actual size. Many specifications are identical for one strain gauge series; therefore, in this catalog, the specifications of a series are given on the pages preceding the list of individual strain gauges. A strain gage consists of a small diameter wire (actually an etched metal foil) that is attached to a backing material (usually made of plastic) as Practical Applications of Strain Gauges. The actual arrangement of your strain gauges will determine the type of strain you can measure and the output voltage change. Miniature strain gauges can be installed in a very limited gauge installation space. These strain gauges are use to measure the amount of stress an airplane can handle until it fails. There are different type series within each strain gauge series. This situation reflects the fact that constantan has the best overall combination of properties needed for many strain gage applications. Applications When strain gauges are used in compressive load transducer applications, which normally require more stringent accuracy requirements, a full bridge circuit is used with active gauges in all four arms of the bridge, (Figure 1). The strain gage was invented by Ed Simmons at Caltech in 1936. Then & Now: Under Stress. The gauges are Karl Hoffmann An Introduction to Stress Analysis and Transducer Design using Strain Gauges www.hbm.com The definitive work on strain gauge measurement Strain Gage Rosettes: Selection, Application and Data Reduction For technical questions, contact micro-measurementsvpgsensors.com Document Number: 11065 Revision: 14-Aug-2014 www.micro-measurements.com 3 Tech Note N-515 planar rosette is etched from the strain-sensitive foil as an entity, with all gage elements lying in a single plane. Introduction to Strain Gauges and their usage Strain Gauge Applications Strain gauges are used to determine or verify component or structure stresses, or by manufacturers of load cells, pressure and torque transducers, etc., where they utilise the physical parameter being measured to strain a part of the transducer in a linear way. Gate Sensitivity: Sensitivity is the smallest value of strain which can be read on the scale associated with the strain gage. STRAIN GAUGE APPLICATIONS Miniature strain gauges Shearing strain and torque measurements Printed circuit boards and surface mounting parts of automobile, computers and industrial machinery are getting smaller. Of all modern strain gage alloys, constantan is the oldest, and still the most widely used. This link is about how measuring stress has changed over the years to the present day. 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