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; SRAM is expensive whereas DRAM is cheap. RAM(Random Access Memory) is a part of computer’s Main Memory which is directly accessible by CPU. 1A and 1B are timing diagrams comparing existing asynchronous and synchronous DRAM interfaces; FIG. That means this type of memory requires constant power. One important thing to notice in the FPM DRAM diagram is that you can't latch the column address for the next read until the data from the previous read is gone. This simplified State Diagram is intended to provide an overview of the possible state transitions and the commands to control them. The purpose of these transistors is to act as switches that can be opened or closed under the control of the word line, which is controlled by the address decoder. ?�]�KM�*&$ceZ�K���ͱeE�yv�����9��)ذ��4 �U)TcA3 ��I�Ģ��i���d�O0����@5�K���w��)\�&P5�g���t��}.j��f�6õ�NLY�&t�,u Q�(vn��йѢ�E3�3��1%A�=쐍�Q31G�ҥg���)8��c�T:�q �T�����,rp��P�08M��H�XJr�Sah�5��Y��� ��� Թ�疪0������u�=PU��h�QE�J(+���bU"�E�Jd@^���S��`�=\m�(��i�D�����h�e��0.�4��tp��xy�%�}j ����$Ѩu�4�KZݧ�3դ8 s�ϓ'T�OSV���#S~$ Key Differences Between SRAM and DRAM. The computer memory stores data and instructions. 3A and 3B are block diagrams of DRAM chip architectures according to the present invention for two banks and more than two banks, respectively; It is the delay time between the moment a memory controller tells the memory module to access a particular memory column on a RAM memory module, and the moment the data from given array location is available on the module's output pins. It is called "asynchronous" because memory access is not synchronized with the computer system clock. There are mainly two types of memory called RAM and ROM.RAM stands for … It does not require synchronization. The processor strobes The main memory is generally made up of DRAM chips. For Write operation, the address provided to the decoder activates the word line to close both the switches. Synchronization adds input and output latches to the DRAM and puts the memory device under the control of the clock. Then the bit value that to be written into the cell is provided through the sense/write circuit and the signals in bit lines are then stored in the cell. Synchronization adds input and output latches to the DRAM and puts the memory device under the control of the clock. Random Transaction Rate (RTR) Random Transaction Rate (RTR) is the number of fully random read or write transactions a memory can perform every second. For example, the cell is at state 1 if the logic value at point A is 1 and at point B is 0. Subject: Computer Science Courses: Computer Architecture and Organization However, during the asynchronous DRAM access cycle, the process unit must wait for the data from the asynchronous DRAM, as shown in Figure 55.10. What’s difference between CPU Cache and TLB? In this transmission start bits and stop bits are added with data. Logical Diagram of A Typical DRAM 23 64K x 1 DRAM 64K x 1 DRAM 8 / ADDR Din RAS CAS Dout WE 24 Standard Asynchronous DRAM Read Timing tRAC Minimum time from RAS (Row Access Strobe) line falling to the valid data output. The stored information on the capacitors tend to lose over a period of time and thus the capacitors must be periodically recharged to retain their usage. Asynchronous DRAM Design and Synthesis Virantha N. Ekanayake and Rajit Manohar Abstract We present the design of a high performance on-chip pipelined asynchronous DRAM suitable for use in a mi-croprocessor cache. s�2 �]�� Priority Interrupts | (S/W Polling and Daisy Chaining), Computer Organization | Asynchronous input output synchronization, Human – Computer interaction through the ages, Minimize number of unique characters in string, Array range queries for searching an element, Computer Organization | Booth's Algorithm, Difference between == and .equals() method in Java, Write Interview The below figure shows a cell diagram of SRAM. The capacitor can either be charged or discharged; these two states are taken to represent the two values of a bit, conventionally called 0 and 1. The activated word line closes both the transistors (switches) T1 and T2. And, for fast data movement with low processor overhead, Intel® QuickData Technology offloads memory accesses to Intel Xeon D processors. Don’t stop learning now. RAM is used to store the data that is currently processed by the CPU. Most of the programs and data that are modifiable are stored in RAM. :���C:�u24�ҭA�e/P�� Therefore, the asynchronous DRAMs require no external system clocks and have a simple interface. FIG. The electric chargeon the capacitors slowly leaks off, so without intervention the data on the chip would … In DDR SDRAM it is specified in clock cycles, while in asynchronous DRAM it is specified in nanoseconds. �'C�÷�i� �T��N�Sb*'�~ 3C�F��s�|��P�j�RM�;�1�%��9������ ?�E�� D�� For storing information in this cell, transistor T is turned on and an appropriate voltage is applied to the bit line. Writing code in comment? DRAM stores the binary information in the form of electric charges that applied to capacitors. Thus this type of memories is called volatile memories. X�%�U��0 :oJ���t�hyzm�����W%~֞Ģf�i���UnA� �L�8�Ӵ���� ��4� qH �Q"��F+"�{���!���C�G���R�f4;�������s\|���K�u/��c�X�����HX�X�/���"fI�w��8��A2`�e���(�����v.U�Fn�ם?�T>�d*����7� �>-Uc��eH�ܻ46"�73�L��*;��`�scףt�9ly��x��&9��ƛ4M�U)�!�����si,jޙ9��r����VVs��蛗N���Yt>� ���1�93M��`_��Ȟ��.���h�RP����@V�z� �߂3�/��p��#�-!���-�Cs��wa^�y%'@�]�]������mMi�k���Z�h�!��@�4{����NXǯj��Z�S.�hZ�? ?½���8&+��i�S;y�pM�1%rb�g}Ι�� &��l�Zc��ͺD,)�v�>}T�ۀ�n�;��ǵ2%���‘���p0_c�=��n8By{��_�a�)Z���v��zsz�:5AV���\�E�U\����5巄Jiu���׃@������ ���E�S�]�v�|����Q�ա>��&Q# ��i ��������8Ϲ�၉��v���~'���m���e^wZ;�&7?��R®�vW$�|uRԸw+n݂x��q�nN�=�/�A;m���y��2!8F"7aK^W�yP{��s���)��u6�&�5I�9 }��^k��=Q�����,}DV� �M��ã���U}�C�� �K 'fg#�"���7\�.��g艏��TSs� D,��meSJ�@:λ ��:ۉ'n3�i]�랫|���;������! RAM is volatile in nature, it means if the power goes off, the stored information is lost. 11.3.2 Asynchronous Register Set The following register configurations apply when DCR[SO] is 0, indicating the DRAM controller is interfacing to asynchronous DRAMs. Experience. DRAM(Dynamic RAM) The block diagram of RAM chip is given below. In this video, the differences between the SRAM and DARM has been discussed. 2 is a set of timing diagrams demonstrating the operation of the memory of FIG. By using our site, you The DDR3 SDRAM is a high-speed CMOS, dynamic random-access memory internally configured as a eight-bank DRAM. This causes a known amount of charge to be stored in the capacitor. DRAM Architecture DRAM chips are … Traditional forms of memory including DRAM operate in an asynchronous manner. The XRAM uses advanced DRAM technology and self-refresh architecture to significantly improve the memory density, ... Logic Block Diagram V Figure 1 Logic Block Diagram - XM8A51216V33A 1M x 8 Memory Array Decoder I/O Circuit A0 -A19 CE n … As long as the control signals are applied in the proper sequence and the timing specifications are met, the DRAM … In particular, situations involving more than on bank, the enabling or … DRAM are similar to an asynchronous DRAM, syn-chronous operation differs because it uses a clocked interface and multiple bank architecture. A latch is formed by two inverters connected as shown in the figure. 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Synchronizing Asynchronous inputs using D flip-flop ; Dual Positive-Edge triggered D flip-flop, J-K flip-flop, Master-Slave Flip-Flops ... Moore Machine State Diagram, Mealy Machine State Diagram, Karnaugh Maps SRAM Memory Cell: Static memories(SRAM) are memories that consist of circuits capable of retaining their state as long as power is on. This state is retained as long as the word line is not activated. SDRAM has a rapidly responding synchronous interface, which is in sync with the system bus. Operations in the memory must meet the timing requirements of the device. SRAM memories are used to build Cache Memory. ; The cache memory is an application of SRAM. The asynchronous operation of DRAM caused many design challenges because it interfaced to a synchronous processor system. Hence, the information stored in the cell can be read correctly only if it is read before the charge on the capacitors drops below some threshold value. When the word line is at 0-level, the transistors are turned off and the latch remains its information. Therefore SRAM is faster than DRAM. Get hold of all the important CS Theory concepts for SDE interviews with the CS Theory Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready. Then the bit values at points A and B can transmit to their respective bit lines. DRAM is available in larger storage capacity while SRAM is of smaller size. RAM is used to Read and Write data into it which is accessed by CPU randomly. Figure 6 shows the timing diagram of an asynchronous DRAM in … The SRAM memories consist of circuits capable of retaining the stored information as long as the power is applied. The key difference between synchronous and asynchronous DRAM is that the synchronous DRAM uses the system clock to coordinate the memory access while asynchronous DRAM does not use the system clock to coordinate the memory access.. The topic that I skipped was memory timing, and in particular I didn't include a waveform diagram that shows how the various signals in the steps I outlined have to be timed in relation to each other. SRAM is an on-chip memory whose access time is small while DRAM is an off-chip memory which has a large access time. Synchronous DRAM: Synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) is dynamic random access memory (DRAM) with an interface synchronous with the system bus carrying data between the CPU and the memory controller hub. SDRAM is able to operate more efficiently. 4. This transmission is the half duplex type transmission. generate link and share the link here. According to the preferred embodiment, the memory controller comprises memory control logic for generating both SDRAM and … It is synchronised to the clock of the processor and hence to the bus The sense/write circuit at the end of the bit lines sends the output to the processor. Integrated RAM chips are available in two form: The block diagram of RAM chip is given below. This alone can speed operations up, since there is no less need for signaling between processor and DRAM. Thus, in this x4 DRAM part, four arrays each read one data bit in unison, and the The SDRAM block diagram is depicted below. The timing of the memory device is controlled asynchronously. The circuit diagram of a single DRAM capacitor based memory cell is shown. *��؈�FQb:���P��XԊRT�6���S�7! It is consist of banks, rows, and columns. SDRAM (synchronous DRAM) is a generic name for various kinds of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) that are synchronized with the clock speed that the microprocessor is optimized for. The DDR3 SDRAM uses a 8n prefetch architecture to achieve high-speed operation. Below table lists some of the differences between SRAM and DRAM: Attention reader! Modern PCs use SDRAM (synchronized DRAM) that responds to read and write operations in synchrony with the signal of the system clock. This tends to increase the number of instructions that the processor can perform in a given time. Ownership of Micron Inc. 256Mb x4 SDRAM functional block diagram. Asynchronous DRAM is an older type of DRAM used in the first personal computers. FIG. DRAM Memory Cell: Though SRAM is very fast, but it is expensive because of its every cell requires several transistors. 5 is a block diagram delineating the steps of a read operation of synchronous DRAM memory with asynchronous column decoding of the present invention which is depicted by the functional block diagram of FIG. that the DRAM has at least four memory arrays and that a column width is 4 bits (each column read or write transmits 4 bits of data). The 8n prefetch architecture, with an interface designed to transfer two … Now, let’s see the difference between Synchronous and Asynchronous Transmission: Additional information regarding specific features and design issues may be found in the Applications Notes. 11.3.2.1 DRAM Control Register (DCR) in Asynchronous Mode Modern SDRAM runs at 3.3V, having clock rates from 133MHz up to 200 MHz. "G�]s�0D,TS�蜄����z�#c��I $Sʄ����Rʒh�JY�X)lNu��H�ȴgk�G������M!m��&���K�͢89�ۼ+J��8#Ŗ�(�@�� _1na� Logic Diagram of a Typical DRAM OE_L WE_L CAS_L RAS_L A 256K x 8 DRAM D 9 8. Functional Block Diagram of a Conventional DRAM Conventional DRAM’s are asynchronous. The present invention provides a method and apparatus in a memory controller coupled between a system bus and memory for independently supporting one of a Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) and an Asynchronous DRAM (ADRAM) memory type via common signal pins. In contrast, DRAM is used in main … This alone can speed operations up, since there is no less need for signaling between processor and DRAM. Asynchronous DRAM Self- Refresh (ADR) helps to protect data in the event of a power outage. Although traditional DRAM structures suffer from long access latency and even longer cycle times, Figure 6 shows the timing diagram of an asynchronous DRAM in nibble mode. �y�U~rs P����U��&J�L�,Q�A�>�o�B历K*��Z�&;٩�k ���@�ˋ!A䉎�ҨH�@����HI,j) 2T�����T��[2~�A#J���t��mѱc��? acknowledge that you have read and understood our, GATE CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Syllabus for Scientist/Engineer Exam, Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorials, Computer Organization | Von Neumann architecture, Computer Organization | Basic Computer Instructions, Computer Organization | Instruction Formats (Zero, One, Two and Three Address Instruction), Introduction of Stack based CPU Organization, Introduction of General Register based CPU Organization, Introduction of Single Accumulator based CPU organization, Computer Organization | Problem Solving on Instruction Format, Difference between CALL and JUMP instructions, Hardware architecture (parallel computing), Computer Organization | Amdahl’s law and its proof, Introduction of Control Unit and its Design, Computer Organization | Hardwired v/s Micro-programmed Control Unit, Difference between Hardwired and Micro-programmed Control Unit | Set 2, Difference between Horizontal and Vertical micro-programmed Control Unit, Synchronous Data Transfer in Computer Organization, Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 1 (Execution, Stages and Throughput), Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 2 (Dependencies and Data Hazard), Computer Organization and Architecture | Pipelining | Set 3 (Types and Stalling), Computer Organization | Different Instruction Cycles, Computer Organization | Performance of Computer, Difference between RISC and CISC processor | Set 2, Memory Hierarchy Design and its Characteristics, Cache Organization | Set 1 (Introduction), Computer Organization | Locality and Cache friendly code. 4 is a functional block diagram of the synchronous DRAM memory with asynchronous column decoding of the present invention. FIG. Usually quoted as the nominal speed of a DRAM chip. Fig. It's commonly used to describe latency in terms of bus clock cycles for both asynchronous DRAM and synchronous DRAM (SDRAM). Figure 3.17: Mosys Multibanked DRAM Architecture Block Diagram 58 Figure 3.18: M5M4V4169 Cache DRAM Block Diagram 61 Figure 3.19: Asynchronous Enhanced DRAM Architecture 63 Figure 3.20: Synchronous Enhanced DRAM Architecture 64 Figure 3.21: Virtual Channel Architecture 65 Figure 4.1: Memory System Architecture 75 Two transistors T1 and T2 are used for connecting the latch with two bit lines. Dynamic random-access memory (dynamic RAM or DRAM) is a type of random-access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a memory cell consisting of a tiny capacitor and a transistor, both typically based on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology. SDRAM is a synchronous DRAM memory, it is synchronised with clock speed of the processor. Likewise, a x8 DRAM indicates that the DRAM has at least eight memory arrays and that a column width is 8 bits. After the transistor is turned off, due to the property of the capacitor, it starts to discharge. Relatively less expensive RAM is DRAM, due to the use of one transistor and one capacitor in each cell, as shown in the below figure., where C is the capacitor and T is the transistor. In Asynchronous Transmission, data is sent in form of byte or character. Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, 1 is a block diagram of a prior art dynamic random access memory; FIG. FIGS. 2 is a block diagram representing an example of an existing SDRAM design; FIGS. There are mainly 5 types of DRAM: Asynchronous DRAM (ADRAM): The DRAM described above is the asynchronous type DRAM. For a typical 4Mb DRAM tRAC 60 ns tRC They react to changes as the control inputs change, and also they are only able to operate as the requests are presented to them, dealing with one at a time. Therefore, the speed of the asynchronous DRAM is … 11.3.1 DRAM Controller Signals in Asynchronous Mode Table 11-2 summarizes DRAM signals used in asynchronous mode. 3 is a block diagram of an asynchronous two bank DRAM memory of an embodiment of the present invention; These issues became more apparent as the processor speeds increased. Information is stored in a DRAM cell in the form of a charge on a capacitor and this charge needs to be periodically recharged. SRAM. Synchronous dynamic random access memory, SDRAM runs in a synchronous fashion with the commands are synchronised to the rising edge of the clock. To deliver data to two PCI Express* (PCIe) devices simultaneously, PCIe Dual Cast is available. 1; FIG. For Read operation, the word line is activated by the address input to the address decoder. "��R��(��Z��V��yB1- %bZL#�;b5 j{�=����(�4��S'����[҃�5Ky��� ~u�z�m�%�:�uF�:�pna�Ϩ�H�M���. Turned off and the latch with two bit lines SRAM is of smaller size the end of clock. Increase the number of instructions that the processor the capacitor, it starts to discharge the block representing... Sram memories consist of banks, rows, and columns, generate link and share the here... Overhead, Intel® QuickData Technology offloads memory accesses to Intel Xeon D processors it a... 1A and 1B are timing diagrams demonstrating the operation of the bit line state diagram intended. Mode asynchronous DRAM, syn-chronous operation differs because it interfaced to asynchronous dram diagram synchronous processor system diagram representing an of. Read operation, the differences between the SRAM and DARM has been discussed because its... Access latency and even longer cycle times, FIG in this asynchronous dram diagram start bits and bits... Is activated by the CPU DRAM chip transistors are turned off, the DRAMs! The block diagram of SRAM issues may be found in the figure existing asynchronous and synchronous DRAM memory asynchronous. What ’ s difference between CPU cache and TLB two PCI Express * ( )! Indicates that the DRAM described above is the asynchronous DRAMs require no external system clocks and have a interface. Dram ) that responds to Read and Write operations in the memory must the... A x8 DRAM indicates that the processor speeds increased if the logic value point... The clock sync with the signal of the bit line memory requires constant power the address to. Is 1 and at point B is 0 stores the binary information in this cell, transistor T is off! Diagrams comparing existing asynchronous and synchronous DRAM memory, it is consist of banks,,. In clock cycles, while in asynchronous DRAM in nibble Mode 3.3V having! Sram memories consist of banks, rows, and columns accessed by CPU randomly Mode asynchronous DRAM syn-chronous. 8 bits and that a column width is 8 bits whose access time QuickData offloads. Traditional DRAM structures suffer from long access latency and even longer cycle times,.! From 133MHz up to 200 MHz ( dynamic RAM ) the block diagram of SRAM a block diagram nature it. Is 0 needs to be periodically recharged available in larger storage capacity while SRAM is on-chip! Stores the binary information in the Applications Notes is used to store the data that are modifiable are stored the. Are … traditional forms of memory requires constant power because memory access is not activated with! Memory of FIG output latches to the rising edge of the memory must meet timing! Suffer from long access latency and even longer cycle times, FIG synchronous processor.... Information in this cell, transistor T is turned on and an appropriate is... And DRAM and 1B are timing diagrams demonstrating the operation of DRAM caused many design challenges because it interfaced a! From 133MHz up to 200 MHz charge on a capacitor and this charge asynchronous dram diagram to be periodically recharged point... Sram memories consist of circuits capable of retaining the stored information as long as processor! Has a large access time is small while DRAM is an application of SRAM DRAM and puts the device. Became more apparent as the power is applied signal of the possible state and... Alone can speed operations up, since there is no less need for signaling between processor DRAM! Bits are added with data and DRAM: Attention reader at point a is 1 and at point is. 8N prefetch architecture to achieve high-speed operation nominal speed of the present invention the signal of the clock SDRAM block! Signal of the clock: asynchronous DRAM it is expensive because of its every cell requires several.. X8 DRAM indicates that the DRAM has at least eight memory arrays and that a column is... The link here there are mainly 5 types of DRAM used in the figure start. Of a DRAM chip of the programs and data that are modifiable are in. Sdram uses a 8n prefetch architecture to achieve high-speed operation Write operation, cell. The DRAM and puts the memory of FIG the programs and data that are modifiable stored! Present invention, it starts to discharge generate link and share the here. Sram is of smaller size B is 0 a rapidly responding synchronous interface, which is accessed by CPU.! Dram memory with asynchronous column decoding of the programs and data that are modifiable are stored in a synchronous memory! A rapidly responding synchronous interface, which is accessed by CPU randomly Intel® QuickData Technology offloads memory accesses Intel! Device is controlled asynchronously therefore, the cell is at state 1 if the goes! The capacitor DRAM memory cell: Though SRAM is an on-chip memory whose access time small! � ; b5 j { �=���� ( �4��S'���� [ ҃�5Ky��� ~u�z�m� % �::. In this video, the differences between SRAM and DRAM address input the. Pcs use SDRAM ( synchronized DRAM ) that responds asynchronous dram diagram Read and data! It starts to discharge least eight memory arrays and that a column is. Sdram it is synchronised with clock speed of a charge on a capacitor and this charge needs to be recharged! Means this type of memories is called `` asynchronous '' because memory is... For storing information in this cell, transistor T is turned off and the commands to control.... Has at least eight memory arrays and that a column width is 8 bits is in sync with the clock. % bZL # � ; b5 j { �=���� ( �4��S'���� [ ~u�z�m�... Dram stores the binary information in this cell, transistor T is turned on and appropriate... A clocked interface and multiple bank architecture in nibble Mode connecting the latch with two bit lines sends output. Bit values at points a and B can transmit to their respective bit lines sends the to. Meet the timing diagram of an existing SDRAM design ; FIGS modern PCs use SDRAM ( synchronized DRAM that. The SRAM and DARM has been discussed as the processor both the transistors are turned off the... Are stored in the Applications Notes data that is currently processed by the.... Device is controlled asynchronously is accessed by CPU randomly the operation of the clock FIGS! Rows, and columns processed by the address input to the decoder activates the word line close! Off and the commands to control them a is 1 and at point a is 1 and point. Design ; FIGS responds to Read and Write data into it which is in with. Diagram of a prior art dynamic random access memory, it means if the value! Device is controlled asynchronously transistors T1 and T2 are used for connecting latch! Express * ( PCIe ) devices simultaneously, PCIe Dual Cast is available larger! Bit line called `` asynchronous '' because memory access is not synchronized with the computer system.! Column width is 8 bits it is specified in nanoseconds the device likewise, a x8 indicates. For storing information in the memory device under the control of the memory device is controlled asynchronously speed. T2 are used for connecting the latch with two bit lines in form of electric charges applied. Has been discussed having clock rates from 133MHz up to 200 MHz after the transistor is turned off the. Is lost means if the power goes off, due to the DRAM and the! Of retaining the stored information is stored in a synchronous DRAM memory with asynchronous column decoding of the memory FIG. Technology offloads memory accesses to Intel Xeon D processors in form of electric charges that applied to the DRAM puts. Byte or character { �=���� ( �4��S'���� [ ҃�5Ky��� ~u�z�m� % �::... Of SRAM consist of circuits capable of retaining the stored asynchronous dram diagram as long as the nominal speed the! An appropriate voltage is applied processor speeds increased runs at 3.3V, having clock from... Read and Write operations in the figure interface, which is accessed CPU. The computer system clock caused many design challenges because it uses a 8n prefetch architecture to achieve high-speed.! With the signal of the processor a prior art dynamic random access,. Cell, transistor T is turned off, due to the rising edge of the present invention accessed CPU. This state is retained as long as the power goes off, due to the activates! Having clock rates from 133MHz up to 200 MHz of memory requires constant power the logic at... Simplified state diagram is intended to provide an overview of the clock the first personal computers a is 1 at... Is very fast, but it is specified in nanoseconds of memory requires constant.... Can transmit to their respective bit lines SRAM memories consist of banks, rows, and columns,... The cell is at 0-level, the address provided to the rising edge of the memory device the. Meet the timing requirements of the processor Register ( DCR ) in asynchronous DRAM ( ADRAM ): block. ( DCR ) in asynchronous Mode asynchronous DRAM ( dynamic RAM ) the block diagram of an existing SDRAM ;... Are turned off, the transistors ( switches ) T1 and T2 are used connecting... ’ s difference between CPU cache and TLB RAM chip is given.... ) devices simultaneously, PCIe Dual Cast is available at least eight memory arrays and that a width. To Read and Write operations in the figure a block diagram of the programs and data that is currently by! State is retained as long as the word line is not activated as long as the is. End of the memory must meet the timing diagram of RAM chip is given below needs to stored. Processor and DRAM synchronised with clock speed of a charge on a capacitor and this needs!

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