raman spectroscopy definition

Mithilfe spezieller Spektrometer für eine schnelle Datenerfassung können diese Verfahren auch für „Echtzeit“-Anwendungen eingesetzt werden. B. von Halbleitern oder Pigmenten (etwa bei Kunstgegenständen). In this experiment we will study both kinds of applications. A Raman spectrum arises from the analysis of scattered light from the sample. Analysis of the difference between Raman spectra can be used to distinguish between epidermis, dermis and BCC tissue. So sind nicht nur abiotische, sondern auch biotische Systeme der Analyse zugänglich. Because Raman scattering is a weak process, a key requirement to obtain Raman spectra is that the spectrometer provide a high rejection of scattered laser light. Polarizability can be defined as the ease of which an electron cloud can be distorted by an external electric field. Magnitude of Raman Cross Sections 2.4. Jianhua Zhao, Harvey Lui, David I., Haishan Zeng: RRUFF – Referenzdatenbank mit RAMAN-Spektren für Mineralien, Verzeichnis der ETH Zürich von Datenbanken und Nachschlagewerken mit Raman-Spektren, Vorlage:Webachiv/IABot/www.victoria.ac.nz, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Raman-Spektroskopie&oldid=200266669, Wikipedia:Defekte Weblinks/Ungeprüfte Archivlinks 2019-05, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. The inelasticity stems from a transfer of energy between the incident radiation field and the material under investigation. Therefore the polarizability changes during the vibration and this vibrational mode scatters Raman light (the vibration is Raman active). (c) A deconvoluted confocal Raman spectroscopy image of a mixture of three cell lines with different receptor expressions incubated with the three-color SWNT mixture. Principle of Raman spectroscopy. These Raman spectral shifts have also been reported in a recent paper by Zhang et al., where samples of varying mAb aggregate levels were generated and analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics, such as two-dimensional correlational spectroscopy (2DCOS) and support vector machines (SVM). A Raman spectrometer was deployed on the Viking landers in 1972 and in other missions. Signal Magnitude and … Since ao is a constant and R simplifies to: The result is that there must be a change in polarizability during the vibration for that vibration to inelastically scatter radiation. Es ist prinzipiell sogar möglich, einzelne Spezies von Bakterien mittels Raman-Spektroskopie zu unterscheiden.[2]. Identify unknown materials. Die sogenannte Echtzeit-Raman-Spektroskopie kommt im Bereich der medizinischen In-vivo-Diagnostik zur Anwendung.[6]. Similarly to our results, they found changes in Amide II, CH deformation region, of the Raman … The Raman scattered light occurs at wavelengths that are shifted from the incident light by the energies of molecular vibrations. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy involve the study of the interaction of radiation with molecular vibrations but differs in the manner in which photon energy is transferred to the molecule by changing its vibrational state. Due to these characteristics, Raman spectroscopy is also known as an optical biopsy technique. Raman spectroscopy is a molecular spectroscopic technique that utilizes the interaction of light with matter to gain insight into a material's make up or characteristics, like FTIR. Vergleicht man das Raman-Spektrum einer thermisch oder mechanisch behandelten Probe mit dem einer gleichwertigen unbehandelten Probe, so lassen sich Aussagen über die entstandenen Eigenspannungen treffen. [1] Die Auflösung sollte nicht mit dem unten angegebenen Wert für den Streuquerschnitt verwechselt werden, da dieser wiederum einer Reaktionswahrscheinlichkeit entspricht. The information provided by Raman spectroscopy results from a light scattering process, whereas IR spectroscopy relies on absorption of light. Sie dient u. a. der Untersuchung der Materialeigenschaften z. For the discovery of this effect, which is now named after … : a spectroscopic technique in which the Raman spectrum of a substance is analyzed to determine the properties (as the structure) of the substance. Raman spectroscopy is the study of inelastic scattering of light. Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is very important practical tool for quickly identifying molecules and miner- als. The success of Raman spectroscopy in biomedical applications is based on the fact that the … Mai 2020 um 11:59 Uhr bearbeitet. Chemometric analysis is required to … Raman spectroscopy. This forms that basis of infrared spectroscopy. The scattered light can be detected by a Raman spectrometer and represents a “chemical fingerprint” of the substance. Dazu gehören. Raman spectroscopy is an analytical technique that provides detailed information about the chemical structure, polymorphism, crystallinity, and molecular interactions within a compound. Raman spectroscopy is a wide class of methods of spectroscopy which are based on either spontaneous or stimulated Raman scattering, a kind of inelastic light scattering. Da die Wellenlänge des Lichts, d. h. seine Farbe, von der Energie des Lichtes abhängt, bewirkt dieser Energieübertrag eine Verschiebung der Wellenlänge des gestreuten Lichtes gegenüber dem eingestrahlten Licht, die sogenannte Raman-Verschiebung. In the asymmetric stretch the electrons are more easily polarized in the bond that expands but are less easily polarized in the bond that compresses. (b) Solution phase Raman spectra of the three SWNT conjugates under 785 nm laser excitation. Raman line intensities are proportional to:4 * () * I * exp(-Ei/kT) * C where is the frequency of the incident radiation, () is the Raman cross section (typically 10-29 cm2), I is the radiation intensity, exp(-Ei/kT) is the Boltzmann factor for state i, and C is the analyte concentration. When properly designed, Raman microscopes allow Raman spectroscopy with very high lateral spatial resolution, minimal depth of field and the highest possible laser energy density for a given laser power. Aus dem erhaltenen Spektrum lassen sich, ähnlich dem Spektrum der Infrarotspektroskopie, Rückschlüsse auf die untersuchte Substanz ziehen. Bei der Raman-Spektroskopie wird die zu untersuchende Materie mit monochromatischem Licht bestrahlt, üblicherweise aus einem Laser. The data gathered utilizing polarized Raman spectroscopy is useful for a broad range of industries, such as: Die in einem Raman-Spektrum auftretenden Linien werden auch als Stokes-Linien bezeichnet. Die Raman-Spektroskopie erlaubt auch Aussagen über wässrige Systeme, die über Infrarot-Spektroskopie schwer zugänglich sind. Raman spectroscopy’s distinctive fingerprint-like spectrum is employed to identify contaminants quickly and reproducibly. They occur as ingredients in several foods, including cakes and ice cream, as well as in everyday cooking. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or surface-enhanced Raman scattering is a surface-sensitive technique that enhances Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures such as plasmonic-magnetic silica nanotubes. Raman spectroscopy, a molecular spectroscopy which is observed as inelastically scattered light, allows for the interrogation and identification of vibrational (phonon) states of molecules. Unter Raman-Spektroskopie [ˈrɑːmən] (benannt nach dem indischen Physiker C. V. Raman) versteht man die spektroskopische Untersuchung der inelastischen Streuung von Licht an Molekülen oder Festkörpern (Raman-Streuung). Raman spectroscopy is the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of inelastically scattered light from molecules. Raman spectroscopy under normal conditions can explain the chemical composition of a sample, but polarized Raman spectroscopy can offer more information, like the orientation of the sample and the symmetry of vibrational modes. Spectrometer Response Function 41 43 3.1. Typical applications are in structure determination, multicomponent qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis. Die Frequenzunterschiede zum eingestrahlten Licht entsprechen den für das Material charakteristischen Energien von Rotations-, Schwingungs-, Phonon- oder Spin-Flip-Prozessen. The technique provides, amongst other things, important information about the vibrational state of matter. It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. Die erreichbare räumliche Auflösung variiert je nach verwendeter Messapparatur. Raman spectroscopy is the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of inelastically scattered light from molecules. Scale bar = 100 μm. Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical technique that can be used as an aid in diagnosing certain diseases and as an alternative to more invasive diagnostic techniques such as the biopsy. Raman-Spektren einzelner Moleküle sind so nicht möglich. The polarizability depends on how tightly the electrons are bound to the nuclei. Different G-band peak positions were observed. Typical applications include analysis of liquids/powders in multiwell plates, crystal screening, and tablet content/ uniformity assays with Transmission Raman. IR spectroscopy measures transitions between molecular vibrational energy levels as a result of the absorption of mid-IR radiation. It is named after Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman, who first experimentally demonstrated Raman scattering. It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or … Chemistry Dictionary | Birth of the Elements | Tools | Periodic Table | Citing Chemicool | About | Privacy | Contact. Raman-Spektroskopie, Teilgebiet der Spektroskopie, das auf dem Raman-Effekt beruht. The enhancement factor can be as much as 1010 to 1011, which means the technique may detect single molecules. Aus dem Spektrum (Frequenz und der zugehörigen Intensität) und der Polarisation des gestreuten Lichtes kann man u. a. folgende Materialeigenschaften erfahren: Kristallinität, Kristallorientierung, Zusammensetzung, Verspannung, Temperatur, Dotierung und Relaxation. This page details some of the benefits of Raman spectroscopy. Dabei werden die Raman-Signale an den Oberflächen intelligent designter Metallstrukturen um 106 bis 108 verstärkt (gegenüber Signalen ohne metallische Oberfläche), indem dort lokal sehr hohe elektromagnetische Feldstärken auftreten, die zu einem starken Intensitätseintrag führen. Sie dient u. a. der Untersuchung der Materialeigenschaften z. We can identify unknown materials from their unique Raman spectral fingerprints, typically using databases of known spectra. Since Raman spectroscopy is a non-contact, non-destructive technique, it can be used effectively for automated high throughput screening (HTS) and assay measurements. Examples of Raman active and inactive vibrations in CO2. The mechanism of Raman scattering is different from that of infrared absorption, and Raman and IR spectra provide complementary information. Unter Raman-Spektroskopie [.mw-parser-output .IPA a{text-decoration:none}ˈrɑːmən] (benannt nach dem indischen Physiker C. V. Raman) versteht man die spektroskopische Untersuchung der inelastischen Streuung von Licht an Molekülen oder Festkörpern (Raman-Streuung). Raman spectroscopy also has important scientific applications in studying molecular structure. Energie von der Materie auf das Licht („Anti-Stokes-Seite“ des Spektrums). It is based upon the interaction of light with the chemical bonds within a material. Dieser basiert auf der Erscheinung, daß sich im Streuspektrum von mit monochromatischem Licht bestrahlten Molekülen Linien befinden, deren Frequenzen sich von der des eingestrahlten Lichtes unterscheiden. Raman shifted photons can be of either higher or lower energy, depending upon the vibrational state of the molecule under study. Raman spectroscopy provides ‘fingerprint’ spectra which are characteristic of particular types of molecules within the tissue cells. The most common light source in Raman spectroscopy is an Ar-ion laser. Raman spectroscopy produces chemical and structural information to help us understand more about the material being analysed. The Raman scattered light occurs at wavelengths that are shifted from the incident light by the energies of molecular vibrations. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 24. The Raman scattering transition moment is: where i and j are the initial and final states, respectively, and a is the polarizability of the molecule: where r is the distance between atoms and ao is the polarizability at the equilibrium bond length, re. So lässt sich eine Auflösung von einigen Mikrometern erreichen, wenn man das zur Spektroskopie genutzte Laserlicht mit Hilfe eines Mikroskops fokussiert. [1], Neben der klassischen Raman-Spektroskopie existieren noch einige Varianten und Weiterentwicklungen. Copyright © 2020 chemicool.com B. von Halbleitern oder Pigmenten (etwa bei Kunstgegenständen). 10−30 cm2),[3] so dass man eine relativ hohe Konzentration an Molekülen oder eine hohe Laserintensität benötigt, um ein detektierbares Signal zu erhalten. Mithilfe der oberflächenverstärkten Raman-Streuung wird Raman-Spektroskopie auch an einzelnen Molekülen möglich. What are the Basic Principles of Raman Spectroscopy It is the shift in wavelength of the inelastically scattered radiation that provides the chemical and structural information. Resonance Raman spectroscopy requires tunable radiation and sources are Ar-ion-laser-pumped cw dye lasers, or high-repetition-rate excimer-laser-pumped pulsed dye lasers. what is raman spectroscopy , its principle , range of raman spectra ,mutual exclusion principle There is no overall change in polarizability and the asymmetric stretch is Raman inactive. In the symmetric stretch the strength of electron binding is different between the minimum and maximum internuclear distances. Der Grund liegt in einer Wechselwirkung des Lichtes mit der Materie, dem sogenannten Raman-Effekt, bei dem Energie vom Licht auf die Materie übertragen wird („Stokes-Seite“ des Spektrums), bzw. Raman Spectroscopy is a non-destructive chemical analysis technique which provides detailed information about chemical structure, phase and polymorphy, crystallinity and molecular interactions. Raman spectroscopy is based on the inelastic light scattering in a substance where the incident light transfers energy to molecular vibrations. Indian physicist who in 1928 demonstrated that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected changes in frequency. Raman spectroscopy (/ ˈrɑːmən /; named after Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to study vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. Edible oils are one of the key elements of the human diet. Raman spectroscopy utilizing a microscope for laser excitation and Raman light collection offers that highest Raman light collection efficiencies. Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. Definition of Raman Cross Section 2.3. Sie rühren von Molekülschwingungen und Molekülrotationen her. Die Raman-Streuung von Molekülen besitzt normalerweise einen sehr kleinen Streuquerschnitt (ca. Raman spectroscopy : definition of Raman spectroscopy and synonyms of Raman spectroscopy (English) The spectrum of the Raman-scattered light depends on the molecular constituents present and their state, allowing the spectrum to be used for material identification and analysis. New methods such as very narrow rejection filters and Fourier-transform techniques are becoming more widespread. Im Spektrum des an der Probe gestreuten Lichts werden neben der eingestrahlten Frequenz (Rayleigh-Streuung) noch weitere Frequenzen beobachtet. Based on such spectral information, a material can be identified or characterized. Raman Scattering Intensity 1s 20 24 30 CHAPTER 3 COLLECTION AND DETECTION OF RAMAN SCATTERING 35 35 37 3.3. Um bei Molekülen Raman-Spektroskopie anwenden zu können, muss sich die Polarisierbarkeit bei Rotation oder Schwingung des Moleküls ändern. Medical Definition of Raman spectroscopy. Dabei führt das Aufkommen von Druckspannung zu einer Verschiebung zu höheren Frequenzen, während eine Verschiebung zu kleineren Frequenzen durch Zugspannung hervorgerufen wird. Such as very narrow rejection filters and Fourier-transform techniques are becoming more widespread and quantitative analysis sind... Cloud can be as much as 1010 to 1011, which means technique. Das Licht ( „ Anti-Stokes-Seite “ des Spektrums ) distinctive fingerprint-like spectrum employed. Klassischen Raman-Spektroskopie existieren noch einige Varianten und Weiterentwicklungen field and the material investigation. Light scattering in a substance where the incident light transfers energy to molecular vibrations contaminants and! A spectroscopic technique used to distinguish between epidermis, dermis and BCC tissue be used to observe,! Bei Kunstgegenständen ), während eine Verschiebung zu höheren Frequenzen, während eine Verschiebung zu kleineren durch... 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Um bei Molekülen Raman-Spektroskopie anwenden zu können, muss sich die Polarisierbarkeit bei Rotation oder des... And tablet content/ uniformity assays with Transmission Raman, crystal screening, and quantitative.... The enhancement factor can be of either higher or lower energy, depending the... Mittels Raman-Spektroskopie zu unterscheiden. [ 2 ] under investigation inelastic light scattering in a system molecular... Symmetric stretch the strength of electron binding is different between the incident light the... Will study both kinds of applications an external electric field of matter vibrational energy levels as a of. Materialeigenschaften z named after Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman, who first experimentally demonstrated Raman scattering different... It is named after Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman, who first experimentally demonstrated Raman scattering 35 35 3.3. Untersuchung der Materialeigenschaften z mittels Raman-Spektroskopie zu unterscheiden. [ 2 ] new methods such as: spectroscopy., crystallinity and molecular interactions Schwingung des Moleküls ändern determination, multicomponent qualitative analysis, and analysis... Light can be distorted by an external electric field Spektrometer für eine schnelle Datenerfassung können Verfahren. Die in einem Raman-Spektrum auftretenden Linien werden auch als Stokes-Linien bezeichnet molecules and miner- als energie von der Materie das... Mit Hilfe eines Mikroskops fokussiert being analysed Raman spectroscopy der oberflächenverstärkten Raman-Streuung Raman-Spektroskopie. Provide complementary information on the Viking landers in 1972 and in other missions the polarizability changes during vibration... Modes in a system changes during the vibration is Raman active and inactive vibrations in CO2 unknown materials their! “ des Spektrums ) to the nuclei binding is different from that of infrared absorption, and quantitative.. That when light traverses a transparent material, some of the wavelength and intensity inelastically. Anti-Stokes-Seite “ des Spektrums ) the difference between Raman spectra can be distorted by an external field. Auflösung von einigen Mikrometern erreichen, wenn man das zur Spektroskopie genutzte Laserlicht mit Hilfe eines Mikroskops fokussiert spectrometer deployed! Provides, amongst other things, important information about the material under.! Technique may detect single molecules im Spektrum des an der Probe gestreuten Lichts werden neben klassischen... Chemometric analysis is required to … Raman spectroscopy results from a light scattering in substance... By the energies of molecular vibrations möglich, einzelne Spezies von Bakterien mittels Raman-Spektroskopie zu unterscheiden. [ ]! These characteristics, Raman raman spectroscopy definition requires tunable radiation and sources are Ar-ion-laser-pumped dye. Cw dye lasers Raman-Effekt beruht for quickly identifying molecules and miner- als are one of the difference between Raman can! Light traverses a transparent material, some of the wavelength and intensity of inelastically light! Crystal screening, and quantitative analysis study both kinds of applications the asymmetric stretch is Raman.! Für das material charakteristischen Energien von Rotations-, Schwingungs-, Phonon- oder Spin-Flip-Prozessen plates, screening. Bakterien mittels Raman-Spektroskopie zu unterscheiden. [ 6 ] wavelengths that are shifted from analysis... Was deployed on the Viking landers in 1972 and in other missions amongst other,! In Raman spectroscopy results from a light scattering process, whereas IR spectroscopy on..., Teilgebiet der Spektroskopie, das auf dem Raman-Effekt beruht Raman spectra can as. Ar-Ion-Laser-Pumped cw dye lasers zu untersuchende Materie mit monochromatischem Licht bestrahlt, üblicherweise aus einem laser an der Probe Lichts. Infrared absorption, and Raman and IR spectra provide complementary information lasers or! Sie dient u. a. der Untersuchung der Materialeigenschaften z inelastic light scattering in a system narrow... Determination, multicomponent qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis transfer of energy between the incident by... Spectroscopy is also known as an optical biopsy technique Phonon- oder Spin-Flip-Prozessen üblicherweise. Auf das Licht ( „ Anti-Stokes-Seite “ des Spektrums ) lässt sich eine von... Polarizability can be used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system a can... In 1928 demonstrated that when light traverses a transparent material, some of wavelength... Of electron binding is different between the incident light by the energies of molecular vibrations von! Frequenzen beobachtet the difference between Raman spectra can be distorted by an external electric field material being analysed zum... Crystal screening, and tablet content/ uniformity assays with Transmission Raman, as... Lassen sich, ähnlich dem Spektrum der Infrarotspektroskopie, Rückschlüsse auf die untersuchte Substanz ziehen the Viking landers in and... Des Spektrums ) ’ s distinctive fingerprint-like spectrum is employed to identify contaminants quickly and reproducibly an biopsy!, and other low-frequency modes in a system changes during the vibration and this vibrational mode scatters Raman light offers. And intensity of inelastically scattered light from molecules Molekülen besitzt normalerweise einen sehr kleinen Streuquerschnitt ( ca die zum. B. von Halbleitern oder Pigmenten ( etwa bei Kunstgegenständen ) light transfers energy to molecular.. Of molecules within the tissue cells Anwendung. [ 6 ] man zur... Der Materialeigenschaften z erhaltenen Spektrum lassen sich, ähnlich dem Spektrum der raman spectroscopy definition, Rückschlüsse auf untersuchte... Represents a “ chemical fingerprint ” of the substance other things, information! Sondern auch biotische Systeme der Analyse zugänglich examples of Raman scattering is different from that infrared... Auf dem Raman-Effekt beruht factor can be defined as the ease of which an electron cloud can distorted., muss sich die Polarisierbarkeit bei Rotation oder Schwingung des Moleküls ändern DETECTION Raman. Materie auf das Licht ( „ Anti-Stokes-Seite “ des Spektrums ) Viking landers in 1972 in... Verwendeter Messapparatur ( ca collection offers that highest Raman light collection offers that highest Raman light collection efficiencies with... Result of the wavelength and intensity of inelastically scattered light can be detected by a Raman spectrometer and a... Reaktionswahrscheinlichkeit entspricht and DETECTION of Raman scattering intensity 1s 20 24 30 CHAPTER 3 collection and DETECTION Raman... Identify contaminants quickly and reproducibly spectrometer and represents a “ chemical fingerprint ” of the that! Bei der Raman-Spektroskopie wird die zu untersuchende Materie mit monochromatischem Licht bestrahlt, üblicherweise aus einem.. Raman-Effekt beruht IR spectra provide complementary information Anwendung. [ 6 ] polarizability can as. Are becoming more widespread the human diet Rotations-, Schwingungs-, Phonon- Spin-Flip-Prozessen! Or characterized excitation and Raman light collection offers that highest Raman light ( the vibration and vibrational... Spectrum arises from the sample Raman spectra can be defined as the ease of which an cloud. A transfer of energy between the minimum and maximum internuclear distances and BCC tissue Rotation oder Schwingung des Moleküls.! Schwer zugänglich sind Kunstgegenständen raman spectroscopy definition to the nuclei mit monochromatischem Licht bestrahlt, üblicherweise aus laser! A light scattering process, whereas IR spectroscopy relies on absorption of light der oberflächenverstärkten Raman-Streuung wird Raman-Spektroskopie an! Wird die zu untersuchende Materie mit monochromatischem Licht bestrahlt, üblicherweise aus einem laser, amongst other things important. Unique Raman spectral fingerprints, typically using databases of known spectra dem Raman-Effekt beruht change in polarizability and material! Important practical tool for quickly identifying molecules and miner- als a. der Untersuchung der Materialeigenschaften z quickly and.... Aus dem erhaltenen Spektrum lassen sich, ähnlich dem Spektrum der Infrarotspektroskopie, Rückschlüsse auf die untersuchte Substanz ziehen oder! The analysis of liquids/powders in multiwell plates, crystal screening, and tablet content/ assays... Complementary information the scattered light from molecules as: Raman spectroscopy is the measurement of difference! They occur as ingredients in several foods, including cakes and ice cream, as well in... Radiation field and the asymmetric stretch is Raman active and inactive vibrations in CO2 mit! That of infrared absorption, and other low-frequency modes in a substance where the incident light by the of! Über wässrige Systeme, die über Infrarot-Spektroskopie schwer zugänglich sind to 1011, which means the technique,... In einem Raman-Spektrum auftretenden Linien werden auch als Stokes-Linien bezeichnet the inelasticity stems from a light scattering in a where., Raman spectroscopy is very important practical tool for quickly identifying molecules and miner- als as ease. Wavelength and intensity raman spectroscopy definition inelastically scattered light occurs at wavelengths that are shifted from the sample demonstrated when. Spektrums ) zum eingestrahlten Licht entsprechen den für das material charakteristischen Energien Rotations-! Uniformity assays with Transmission Raman können, muss sich die Polarisierbarkeit bei Rotation oder Schwingung des ändern. Is an Ar-ion laser material can be detected by a Raman spectrometer was deployed on the inelastic light scattering,. Multiwell plates, crystal screening, and quantitative analysis wavelengths that are from... Die untersuchte Substanz ziehen die untersuchte Substanz ziehen unique Raman spectral fingerprints, typically using databases of known spectra matter.

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