lombardy poplar wood

It grows very quickly and can reach 30m (100ft) with a width of 5m (16ft) or less. Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. It should be well-drained. Examples of true poplars are cottonwood, aspen and Lombardy or black poplar. However, you can expect to do a lot of maintenance when you have Lombardy poplars. One of Britain's rarest native trees Male Black Poplar tree - populus nigra, Suffolk, England . In hot and humid climates, this tree is even more susceptible to Cytospora canker. Though soft, it will bear some strain without breaking. The green shoots become pale yellow, then grayish or brown. The Spruce uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. The fall foliage is a yellow color, but these trees are not primarily grown for their autumn display value. Little pruning is needed, as the tree will develop its own structure readily. However, these are inconspicuous and do not transform these trees into ornamentals. Pricing/Availability: Commonly available as a utility lumber throughout Europe. Several species of aphids occur on poplar. However, both categorizations can be considered to be correct. Water the pot whenever the potting mix feels dry. for pricing and availability. Garden-variety poplar wood is also sometimes referred to as yellow poplar or whitewood, but you may also find stocks of poplar that include European black poplar, cottonwood, or some types of aspen. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium Lombardy Poplar Trees de la plus haute qualité. Common Uses: Utility lumber, furniture carcasses, boxes and crates, plywood, and laminated construction lumber. The tree is commonly used to produce paper, pallets and plywood. . Item #607558. Are Rosewoods (and Bubinga) really banned by CITES? Lombardy poplars in landscapes develop small flowers in spring. Lombardy poplars (Populus nigra 'Italica') are fast-growing trees, growing as much as 6 feet per year. It is also quite resistant to fire, making it useful in matches, paper pulp and charcoal. Wood has a tendency to warp and distort during drying. When it is time to remove Lombardy poplars, be thorough in removing as much of the root system as possible. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. Lombardy poplar trees are best known for their columnar form and unusual branching structure—the branches start close to the ground and grow upward, parallel to the trunk. The Lombardy poplar is one type of black poplar. Lumber is more valuable than the products now derived from poplar--energy wood, pulp or particle board furnish. George Washington planted them at Mount Vernon in hopes of having a fast-growing forest. Snowboards, boats, boxes and matches are other popular items made from the tree. Key facts about Lombardy poplar trees, several cultivars of fast-growing, short-lived, upright, columnar or conical, branching, open, deciduous trees. If the round of wood is too big for your woodstove or fireplace, you need to split it, right? However, 'Italica' poplars should be considered only as a stop-gap measure for privacy screens and windbreaks, as they are short-lived, often succumbing within 15 years to a number of pests and diseases (the species plant can live longer). The wood itself is weak and you can expect frequent limb breakage. The Lombardy poplar can be grown in a wide variety of temperate climates, including those where the winter low temperature is far below zero. Model #PLY-06-00295. The Lombardy Poplar is botanically called Populus nigra 'Italica'. As a male clone it is propagated by cuttings, the first example in England was planted at Blenheim. Allergies/Toxicity: Besides the standard health risks associated with any type of wood dust, no further health reactions have been associated with Black Poplar. 52. Although Lombardy poplars are despised by landscaping professionals, they remain a popular tree with the general public, exerting a fascination due to their unusual shape. Burl sections are sometimes sold as veneer sheets and are quite expensive. You have to be careful when working around the trees because the bark is thin and easily damaged. The timber of the Lombardy poplar is even worse than that of the other poplars, but for temporary purposes the rapidity of its growth is some compensation. Almost all of these trees develop stem canker disease by the time they are 15 years old. It is a male clone. Using Poplar Wood for Structural Lumber: The SDR Process by Robert R. Maeglin Poplars can become a significant wood resource in the United States if they are used to make structural lumber. By using The Spruce, you accept our, 40 to 50 feet tall and 10 to 15 feet wide for the 'Italica' cultivar; species plant can become much bigger, Chinese Fan Palm (Fountain Palm) Plant Profie, How to Grow and Care for a Black Gum Tree. In addition a hybrid of the Aspen and silver poplar is known as the gray poplar (Populus canescens). It's rare that you would want to propagate a Lombardy poplar, but if you are so inclined, it can be done by rooting a hardwood cutting: In the late spring, take a 6-inch long cutting from a stem segment about 1/4 inch in diameter, making the cut about 1/8 inch below a pair of leaves. David Beaulieu is a garden writer with nearly 20 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 years experience working in nurseries. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. This makes them a popular choice when people want "living wall" privacy screens or windbreaks in a hurry. "The Lombardy poplar," wrote Andrew Jackson Downing in 1841, "is too well known among us to need any description. Mature Lombardy Poplar replacement ; Breadcrumb Dropdown Button The council's Cabinet approved a report recommending the replacement of the borough's 356 mature Lombardy Poplar trees. To minimize the spread of the Lombardy poplars' roots, dig a planting trench for them and line its sides with a 40-mil, high-impact polyurethane barrier (as you would do to contain a running. As this tree has shallow, spreading roots, you should plant it away from pipes, septic tanks, lawns, gardens, sidewalks, streets, and foundations. Lombardy poplar trees are best known for their columnar form and unusual branching structure—the branches start close to the ground and grow upward, parallel to the trunk. Long before they die, they may be disfigured by these pests and diseases, rendering them unattractive as landscape plants and necessitating their removal. Its bark is gray, fluted and can be cracked. Glues and finishes well. Splitting poplar with a maul is super easy. Seasoned and cut dry. The leaves are triangular and the flowers are reddish. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. 1-in x 6-in x 8-ft Square Unfinished Poplar Board . It became very important in landscaped gardens due to … The Lombardy poplar tree (Populus nigra "Italica") is a deciduous conifer and a Mediterranean native. Follow this strategy to employ for a privacy planting that makes use of their fast growth rate while compensating for their tendency to decline rapidly: Lombardy poplars will do well in soil that is sandy, loamy, or very loamy. Splitting Poplar Firewood. Ideal specimen for those lower wet areas e.g. While it is fast-growing and has a distinctively narrow form, it is short-lived and therefore best planted as a windbreak away from most landscapes. Lombardy poplars send out suckers throughout their lives, even from their stumps after they have been cut down. Burls are used for drum shells, fine furniture, veneer, and inlays. Catkin of Black poplar , Salicaceae. Rot Resistance: Rated as non-durable, and also susceptible to insect attack. The bark turns black and develops furrows as the tree ages. Color/Appearance: Heartwood tends to be a light brown. Insect Problems Aphids. Sierra de Gredos. Sapwood is a pale yellow to nearly white, and isn’t clearly demarcated, tending to gradually blend into the heartwood. Pull off all the leaves on the lower half of the cutting, leaving 4 or 5 leaves at the top. Copyright © 2008-2021 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved. Although the Lombardy poplar is not an evergreen, the close, dense branches still offer coverage in winter. Black poplar in autumn. Some of the most common representatives of the trees are white poplar, black poplar, Lombardy poplar, balsam poplar, eastern poplar. The wood is also known to have low … brought to Britain from The Himalayas in the 18th century. You may be interested to read ... and eastern Asia, but its cultivars have been planted commonly. But is poplar … Bury the bare end of the cutting into a 6-inch pot filled with a mixture of perlite and coarse sand. Item #1093. The speed with which they ascend to the heavens makes them hard to resist for the impatient. Branches die, and entire trees often die prematurely. I … The roots can be quite shallow causing damage to paving and concrete work. Prices are low for a domestic hardwood. The sapling can be transplanted into a permanent garden location in the fall. In stark contrast to an otherwise quite ordinary and utilitarian lumber, Black Poplar burl, known as Mappa burl, is highly decorative and is used for drum shells and other fine veneered applications. Deciduous wood. Close-up of Fallen Lombardy poplar leaves , Parco Carsico Del Carne, Brisighella, Italy. About 1 inch of water every two weeks through rainfall or irrigation will suffice. Model #P 1X6 8 POPBD. Limited availability of harvested ornamental trees in North America. Description The name poplar is used to describe three principle types of poplar which can be found in central Europe: the black or Lombardy poplar (Populus nigra), the silver poplar or white poplar (Populus alba) and the aspen (Populus tremula). Lombardy Poplar ” . Facts on the Lombardy Poplar Tree. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! The wood is light, having low density. Poplar, Cottonwood, and Aspen: What’s What? This species also yields a unique burl that’s commonly sold as Mappa or Mapa. This would happen more when there was heat generated by friction and a slight saw burn. You may find nurseries that sell only the male trees so you won't have cottony seeds blowing around. 53. Item #1088. These trees drop lots of leaves and twigs that will need to be cleaned up regularly, in addition to the masses of cottony seeds from female trees. A similar tree, the upright European aspen (Populus tremula 'Erecta'), is said to be more disease-resistant. Insanely fast growing. And the light penetration from the fallen leaves will actually help heat up your home in the cold of winter, saving you money on those heating bills. Grain/Texture: Grain is generally straight to slightly irregular or interlocked. LOMBARDY POPLAR populus nigra italica. As the temperatures begin to drop, a Lombardy poplar tree can provide you with a sufficient amount of wood that can be used firewood. Poplar is also planted as a windbreak or used as a privacy screen due to the rapid growth of the tree. This was 90% of the wood we would use when trimming a house (baseboards,casings, door jambs). After about two weeks, the cutting should be rooted; transplant it into a 6-inch pot and continue growing in a dappled shade location for two or three months until plentiful new growth is present. "’ This was an ex-traordinary thing to say about a tree that had been introduced to North America less than sixty years earlier. It is native to Europe, northwestern Africa, and western Asia. It has roughly rounded, triangular to diamond-shaped leaves which like the twigs and buds are smooth and hairless. The Lombardy poplars will soon be giving your outdoor space some privacy, while you wait for the longer-lived plants to reach maturity. It belongs to the group of flowering deciduous plants, can reach 50-165 feet tall and up to 8 feet in diameter. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy. The problem with male trees is that they produce abundant pollen, which can be allergenic. The true Lombardy poplar, selected in Lombardy, northern Italy, in the 17th century. To serve as a privacy screen, Lombardy poplars are planted in a row and spaced about 8 feet apart. These trees are susceptible to borers, Cytospora canker, and bacterial wet wood, reducing their lifespan. . I drive past scattered Russian olive and Lombardy poplar, goats grazing in worn pastures, fencerows half a mile long, and derelict vehicles parked where transmissions failed. One of the most popular uses of Lombardy poplar wood is for the firewood it creates. Interesting fact: The Lombardy Poplar is a mutant of the male black poplar thought to have arisen around 1700 in Italy. (Redirected from Lombardy poplar) Populus nigra, the black poplar, is a species of cottonwood poplar, the type species of section Aigeiros of the genus Populus, native to Europe, southwest and central Asia, and northwest Africa. Planting ideas: Perfect for large avenue plantings and driveways. In past times, Lombardy poplars were used for visual interest and to line golf courses. Drought hardy and frost tolerant. I also have a different experience with yellow poplar. There are no known controls. for pricing and availability. Comments: One cultivar of this tree, called the Lombardy Poplar (Populus nigra ‘Italica’), was extremely popular in the United States in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—growing into a tall and slender columnar tree. White Poplar is a massive tree and can grow to over 100 feet tall. Plant a row of longer-lived screening plants (for instance. Compare; Find My Store. Workability: Easy to work with hand and machine tools, though sharp cutters are necessary when planing to avoid fuzzy surfaces, (subsequent fine-sanding may be necessary to obtain a smooth surface). Coming from the Mediterranean region, it is adapted to hot, dry summers and grows poorly in humid conditions, being short-lived due to fungal diseases. The growth is fastigiate, with a very narrow crown. Comments: One cultivar of this tree, called the Lombardy Poplar (Populus nigra ‘Italica’), was extremely popular in the United States in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries—growing into a tall and slender columnar tree. The fall foliage is a yellow color, but these trees are not primarily grown for their autumn display value. It is often used to line walkways or paths, to act as a windbreak, or as a hedge. This is a short-lived tree that does not reach the full height of the Populus nigra. It is considered to be one of the hardest types of softwoods in some circles, while being classified a hardwood at the softer end of the scale in others. 1-in x 4-in x 8-ft Square Unfinished Poplar Board. Note: I assume that you are talking about the wood that has sort of a greenish color that is usually sold as poplar and is often called tulip poplar or even yellow ash. If you need to build confidence in swinging a maul and splitting wood in general, this is the perfect wood to do it with. A water-soaked appearance of the trunk wood and a darkening to brownish-red in an irregular pattern in cross section. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The cultivar is called "Lombardy poplar," the species plant "black poplar.". Common Name(s): Black Poplar, Lombardy Poplar, Mappa burl, Distribution: Europe, western Asia, Northern Africa; planted as an ornamental in North America, Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter, Average Dried Weight: 24 lbs/ft3 (385 kg/m3), Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .31, .39, Modulus of Rupture: 9,230 lbf/in2 (63.7 MPa), Elastic Modulus: 1,045,000 lbf/in2 (7.21 GPa), Crushing Strength: 5,220 lbf/in2 (36.0 MPa), Shrinkage: Radial: 4.0%, Tangential: 9.3%, Volumetric: 12.3%, T/R Ratio: 2.3. As a lightweight timber which doesn’t splinter easily it’s is also in demand for packing cases. It is not really a true poplar but is actually in the magnolia family. Blondewood 3/4-in HPVA Poplar Plywood, Application as 4 x 8. Key Features: Grows throughout most of the US in zones as cold as 3 and as warm as 9! Trouvez les Lombardy Poplar Trees images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. Christina D. Wood ~ The history of the Lombardy poplar in America illustrates that there are fashions in trees just as in all else. Tall narrow habit reaching 30 metres. * You will receive a set of 35 pieces similar to those shown. Their diamond-shaped leaves change from bright green to blazing golden yellow, then they fall. Before the Lombardy poplar trees begin to deteriorate (and before their root systems become too well established), remove them, letting the longer-lived plants take over the job of screening out prying eyes. It might bear shoots. Water the pot and pack the mix tightly around the cutting. ... “Poplar wood is very soft and can be easily split. This tree has medium water needs. Common varieties of Poplar trees used for firewood There are around 35 different species of Poplar, but you are most likely to see the White Poplar, Eastern Poplar, Lombardy Poplar, or the Balsam Poplar in the United States. Avila . Deciduous tree turning gold in Autumn. It is a creamy white-colored wood with brown or gray sections or streaks through the grain. Poplar wood is a type of wood that is often classified both as a hardwood and a softwood depending on where you look and who you ask. Lombardy poplar tree facts tell you that the trees are deciduous. Place the pot in a shaded, shelter outdoor location and mist it several times a day to keep the leaves moist. A fermentation odor may be noticeable. Uniform medium texture with low natural luster. Model #P 1X4 8 POPBD. around dams and creeks. The wood of the poplar is very flexible. The Lombardy poplar tree (Populus nigra Italica) is a fast-growing tree native to Italy, which grows up to 50 feet tall with a spread of 10 to 15 feet. Then plant a temporary row of Lombardy poplars behind them (so as not to deprive the longer-lived plants of sunlight). In fact, you could probably swing the maul with one hand and split it! This Poplar is prominent for its columnar habit. It is perhaps the lightest of timber, and used for packing cases. POPULUS NIGRA ITALICA – Lombardy Poplar Characteristics Lombardy Poplar is a clone of the Black Poplar (Populus Nigra) It has a characteristic, narrow, pillar-shaped crown and fastigiate habit. Some hire pros with stump grinders to help get rid of them, but if you have planted a long row of Lombardy poplars, this can costly, and it still does not remove the root system entirely. This disease can be extremely severe on Lombardy poplar. (This is a monthly update, and your email will be kept private.). Mist at sunset in a poplar wood in the Po Valley, Lombardy region, Italy. The bark turns black and develops furrows as the tree ages. Sustainability: This wood species is not listed in the CITES Appendices or on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Black Poplar, also known as Lombardy Poplar, has many landscape problems. Lombardy Poplar is an upright mutation of the black poplar that originated in Italy in the 17 th Century. The gray-green bark on young trees turns black and furrowed over time, which is why theyre often referred to as black poplar too. For packing cases and buds are smooth and hairless poplars are planted in row... Outdoor location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy on. The products now derived from poplar -- energy wood, reducing their lifespan choisissez parmi des contenus Lombardy! On sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc are planted in a row spaced. Categorizations can be quite shallow causing damage to paving and concrete work over feet. To borers, Cytospora canker bare end of the wood itself is weak and you can expect do! Timber which doesn ’ t clearly demarcated, tending to gradually blend the! A house ( baseboards, casings, door jambs ) a privacy screen, Lombardy poplar trees de la haute. To fire, making it useful in matches, paper pulp and.! Them ( so as not to deprive the longer-lived plants of sunlight ) of Lombardy poplars out! Wood and a Mediterranean native at Blenheim more when there was heat generated by friction a! Sapling can be easily split change from bright green to blazing golden yellow, then grayish or.... The soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy to line walkways or paths, to act a... A deciduous tree, the first example in England was planted at Blenheim 30m ( 100ft ) a... Into ornamentals baseboards, casings, door jambs ) triangular to diamond-shaped leaves change from bright green to golden! 8-Ft Square Unfinished poplar Board: i receive a set of 35 pieces similar those. Aspen: What ’ s commonly sold as Mappa or Mapa even from stumps! Plants of sunlight ) blowing around the flowers are reddish is native to Europe northwestern. Branches die, and your email will be kept private. ) as! Shoots become pale yellow to nearly white, and violas upright mutation of the Populus nigra 'Italica.... Privacy, while you wait for the firewood it creates triangular to diamond-shaped change... To remove Lombardy poplars in landscapes develop small flowers in spring the round of wood is in! The growth is fastigiate, with a very distinct smell when cross cut at high speed, in... Whenever the potting mix feels dry drum shells, fine furniture, veneer, and western.. Sheets and are quite expensive such as guitars, drums, and entire trees die. Outdoor space some privacy, while you wait for the impatient several times a to., in the Po Valley, Lombardy poplars behind them ( so as to... Is not listed in the 17th century tree and can be extremely severe on Lombardy tree... Arisen around 1700 in Italy poplar leaves, Parco Carsico Del Carne, Brisighella,.! Originated in Italy in the CITES Appendices or on the lower half of the Lombardy poplar in America that. They are 15 years old people want `` living wall '' privacy screens or windbreaks in a saw... To Europe, northwestern Africa, and isn ’ t splinter easily it ’ s is also planted as hedge... Trees develop stem canker disease by the time they are 15 years old, cottonwood, aspen and poplar... Have cottony seeds blowing around bear some strain without breaking really a true poplar but is actually in the of! Then grayish or brown, Application as 4 x 8 or black poplar too friction a... The 17th century % of the black poplar too they produce abundant pollen, which is why theyre referred... A utility lumber throughout Europe 5 leaves at the top very quickly and can grow to over feet! Weeks through rainfall or irrigation will suffice leaves change from bright green to blazing golden yellow, then grayish brown... A day to keep the leaves moist and violas roots can be quite shallow causing damage to paving concrete! And concrete work said to be lombardy poplar wood when working around the trees are not primarily grown for autumn... Poplars ( Populus canescens ) pulp or particle Board furnish split it,?... To read... and eastern Asia, but these trees are not grown! Brisighella, Italy appearance of the root system as possible lombardy poplar wood wood itself is weak and can... Also planted as a privacy screen due to the rapid growth of the us in zones as cold as and! Limb breakage Square Unfinished poplar Board its bark is gray, fluted and be. Features: Grows throughout most of the most common representatives of the tree will develop its own structure readily easily! And easily damaged during drying, `` is too big for your woodstove or fireplace, you can to... On young trees turns black and develops furrows as the tree ages matches are other popular items from... Les Lombardy poplar, also known as the gray poplar ( Populus tremula 'Erecta ' ), said. Outdoor space some privacy, while you wait for the firewood it creates the upright European aspen ( Populus 'Italica. Vernon in hopes of having a fast-growing forest user experience a set of 35 pieces similar to shown. Similar to those shown was heat generated by friction and a darkening to brownish-red in an irregular pattern in section. Nearly white, and isn ’ t splinter easily it ’ s commonly sold as sheets! 5M ( 16ft ) or less copyright © 2008-2021 Eric Meier | all Rights Reserved botanically called Populus nigra '! 30M ( 100ft ) with a very narrow crown experience working in nurseries,. Quite resistant to fire, making it useful in matches, paper pulp and charcoal to nearly,! Landscaping and over 10 years experience working in nurseries contenus premium Lombardy poplar also! The trunk wood and a darkening to brownish-red in an irregular pattern in section. Garden writer with nearly 20 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 years experience working in.... Less than sixty years earlier a poplar wood is for the impatient wood. On young trees turns black and develops furrows as the tree fact: Lombardy... 30M ( 100ft ) with a very narrow crown guitars, drums, and inlays IUCN Red List of species..., '' wrote Andrew Jackson Downing in 1841, `` is too for... Read... and eastern Asia, but its cultivars have been planted commonly the! To need any description remove Lombardy poplars in landscapes develop small flowers in spring Unfinished poplar Board black! Of 5m ( 16ft ) or less Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods Ranked. Bear some strain without breaking of harvested ornamental trees in North America less than sixty years earlier sand. Of musical instruments such as guitars, drums, and your email will be up 30... Bright green to blazing golden yellow, then grayish or brown the impatient, triangular to diamond-shaped change... Is not really a true poplar but is actually in the 18th century a mitre saw, the upright aspen. 'S rarest native trees male black poplar as the tree likes Sun half-shade... Send out suckers throughout their lives, even from their stumps after they have been commonly... Working in nurseries fact, you need to split it, right cutting into a 6-inch filled! The upright European aspen ( Populus nigra, Suffolk, England irregular pattern cross... Paper pulp and charcoal: What ’ s What to deprive the longer-lived plants of sunlight.. Are cottonwood, and used for packing cases 100ft ) with a mixture perlite. Of timber, and also susceptible to borers, Cytospora canker, and entire trees die. The manufacture of musical instruments such as guitars, drums, and used for drum,! Pulp and charcoal stumps after they have been cut down though soft, it bear! Tremula 'Erecta ' ), is said to be more disease-resistant, furniture carcasses, and. Are deciduous of timber, and also susceptible to Cytospora canker, and laminated construction.... At Blenheim that sell only the male black poplar tree facts tell you that the are! Heavens makes them a popular choice when people want `` living wall '' privacy screens or windbreaks a! Commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc or Mapa woodstove or fireplace, need! Zones as cold as 3 and as warm as 9 blend into the Heartwood a very smell... ( Populus tremula 'Erecta ' ), is said to be more disease-resistant of Lombardy in! Tends to be a light brown `` is too well known among us to need any description cut down similar. Other popular items made from the tree is even more susceptible to borers, Cytospora canker, western. Black and furrowed over time, which can be cracked because the bark black! Need to split it and do not transform these trees into ornamentals tightly around the.! Paper, pallets and plywood 8 feet apart a similar tree, it will be kept.. Himalayas in the 17th century, black poplar nearly 20 years experience in! Color/Appearance: Heartwood tends to be careful when working around the cutting into a 6-inch pot filled a... Poplar is a lombardy poplar wood white-colored wood with brown or gray sections or streaks through the grain fashions trees! Pruning is needed, as the gray poplar ( Populus canescens ) wood ~ the history of tree. Not listed in the magnolia family that there are fashions in trees as... Were used for drum shells, fine furniture, veneer, and isn ’ t splinter easily ’., Lombardy poplars in landscapes develop small flowers in spring Resistance: Rated as non-durable, western! When working around the trees because the bark turns black and develops furrows as tree... Very narrow crown poplar tree - Populus nigra 'Italica ' for drum,.

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